The subject of the Horatii and the Curiatii generated many adaptations between 1640 and 1800, all belonging to different artistic media: drama, ballet, engraving, painting, the French « tragédie en musique ». If each work generally gave pride of place to the heroism of the fighters, it is nonetheless the fate of Camilla that mainly inspired eighteenth-century artists and critics. Many masterpieces thus came into being, such as Noverre’s ballet in 1777 and David’s painting in 1785. Both works sparked off important changes in their respective fields. The controversial reception of Salieri’s “tragédie en musique” (1786) perfectly illustrates the sometimes harsh criticism that inevitably followed a new treatment of the subject.