Michel Paul Gui de Chabanon, a native of Saint-Domingue, maintained strong ties with his island until late in his life. An analysis of the place and function of the colonists’ music may help understand colonial society. In towns, public entertainments testified to the tensions that affected society and revealed the latent conflictual nature of « dominguoise » identity in its early stages. Travel-narratives also provide opportunities to observe the prejudices that affected the slave population and its evolution. In this respect, Chabanon’s writings offer an original viewpoint.